Punching errors

Punching errors include all those production errors of the die that can be found on some design elements, such as letters, numbers and other distinctive elements.
The punching process takes place through special "punches" which are compressed on the coin to complete or refine the design elements. This kind of errors arises due to the negligence of the engraver, as to manually add or refine a certain number or letter on the reproducing punch, one does not hit it in the exact position in which this element should be found, imprinting the reliefs (in incuse on the die) in an incorrect position. This is a recurring error in all the coinage of the Kingdom of Italy and pre-unification.